There are 29 eight-bit registers in SID which control the generation of sound. These registers are either WRITE-only or READ-only and are listed below in Table 1.
Table 1. SID Register Map
REG # DATA REG NAME TYPE (Hex) d7 d6 d5 d4 d3 d2 d1 d0 - -------------------------------------------------------------------- Voice 1: 00 F7 F6 F5 F4 F3 F2 F1 F0 FREQ LO Write 01 F15 F14 F13 F12 F11 F10 F9 F8 FREQ HI Write 02 PW7 PW6 PW5 PW4 PW3 PW2 PW1 PW0 PW LO Write 03 - - - - PW11 PW10 PW9 PW8 PW HI Write 04 Noise Pulse /// /\/\ TEST RING SYNC GATE CONTROL Write 05 ATK3 ATK2 ATK1 ATK0 DCY3 DCY2 DCY1 DCY0 ATK/DCY Write 06 STN3 STN2 STN1 STN0 RLS3 RLS2 RLS1 RLS0 STN/RLS Write Voice 2: 07 F7 F6 F5 F4 F3 F2 F1 F0 FREQ LO Write 08 F15 F14 F13 F12 F11 F10 F9 F8 FREQ HI Write 09 PW7 PW6 PW5 PW4 PW3 PW2 PW1 PW0 PW LO Write 0A - - - - PW11 PW10 PW9 PW8 PW HI Write 0B Noise Pulse /// /\/\ TEST RING SYNC GATE CONTROL Write 0C ATK3 ATK2 ATK1 ATK0 DCY3 DCY2 DCY1 DCY0 ATK/DCY Write 0D STN3 STN2 STN1 STN0 RLS3 RLS2 RLS1 RLS0 STN/RLS Write Voice 3: 0E F7 F6 F5 F4 F3 F2 F1 F0 FREQ LO Write 0F F15 F14 F13 F12 F11 F10 F9 F8 FREQ HI Write 10 PW7 PW6 PW5 PW4 PW3 PW2 PW1 PW0 PW LO Write 11 - - - - PW11 PW10 PW9 PW8 PW HI Write 12 Noise Pulse /// /\/\ TEST RING SYNC GATE CONTROL Write 13 ATK3 ATK2 ATK1 ATK0 DCY3 DCY2 DCY1 DCY0 ATK/DCY Write 14 STN3 STN2 STN1 STN0 RLS3 RLS2 RLS1 RLS0 STN/RLS Write Filter: 15 - - - - - FC2 FC1 FC0 FC LO Write 16 FC10 FC9 FC8 FC7 FC6 FC5 FC4 FC3 FC HI Write 17 RES3 RES2 RES1 RES0 FILEX FILT3 FILT2 FILT1 RES/FILT Write 18 3 OFF HP BP LP VOL3 VOL2 VOL1 VOL0 MODE/VOL Write Misc.: 19 PX7 PX6 PX5 PX4 PX3 PX2 PX1 PX0 POT X Read 1A PY7 PY6 PY5 PY4 PY3 PY2 PY1 PY0 POT Y Read 1B O7 O6 O5 O4 O3 O2 O1 O0 OSC3/RND Read 1C E7 E6 E5 E4 E3 E2 E1 E0 ENV3 Read
Together these registers form a 16-bit number which linearly controls the
frequncy of Osscillator 1. The frequency is determined by the following equation:
Fout = (Fn * Fclk / 16777216) Hz
Where Fn is the 16-bit number in the frequency registers and Fclk is the system clock applied to the Phi2 input (pin 6). For a standard 1.0 MHz clock, the frequency is given by:
Fout = (Fn * 0.059604645) Hz
It should be noted that the frequency resolution of SID is sufficient for any tuning scale and allows sweeping from note to note (portamento) with no dicernable frequency steps.
Together these registers form a 12-bit number (bits 4-7 of PW HI are not
used) which linearly controls the pulse width (duty cycle) of the pulse
waveform on Oscillator 1. The pulse width is determined by the following
PWout = (PWn/40.95) %
Where PWn is the 12-bit number in the Pulse Width registers. The pulse width resolution allows the width to be smoothly swept with no discernable stepping. Note that the pulse waveform on Oscillator 1 must be selected in order for the pulse width registers to have any audible effect. A value of 0 or 4095 ($FFF) in the pulse width registers will poroduce a constant DC output, while a value of 2048 ($800) will produce a square wave. [A value of 4095 will not produce a constant DC output].
This register contains eight control bits which select various options on Oscillator 1.
GATE (Bit 0): The GATE bit controls the envelope generator for voice 1. When this bit is set to one, the envelope generator is gated (triggered) and the ATTACK/DECAY/SUSTAIN cycle is initiated. When the bit is reset to zero, the RELEASE cycle begins. The envelope generator controls the amplitude of Oscillator 1 appearing at the audio output, therefore, the GATE bit must be set (along with suitable envelope parameters) for the selceted output of oscillator 1 to be audible.
SYNC (Bit 1): The SYNC bit, when set to one, synchronizes the fundamental frequency of oscillator 1 with the fundamental frequency of oscillator 3, producing "Hard Sync" effects. Varying the frequency of oscillator 1 with respect to oscillator 3 produces a wide range of complex harmonic structures from voice 1 at the frequency of oscillator 3. In order for sync to occur, oscillator 3 must be set to some frequency other than zero but preferable lower than the frequency of oscillator 1. No other parameters of voice 3 have any effect on sync.
RING MOD (Bit 2): The RING MOD bit, when set to a one, replaces the triangle waveform of output of oscillator 1 with a "Ring Modulated" combination of oscillators 1 and 3. Varying the frequency of oscillator 1 with respect to oscillator 3 produces a wide range ofnon-harmonic overtone structures for creating bell or gong sounds and for special effects. In order for ring modulation to be audible, the triangle waveform of oscillator 1 must be selected and oscillator 3 must be set to some frequency other than zero. No other parameters of voice 3 have any effect on ring modulation.
TEST (Bit 3): The TEST bit, when set to one, resets and locks oscillator 1 at zero until the TEST bit is cleared. The noise waveform output of oscillator 1 is also reset and the pulse waveform output is held at a DC level. Normally this bit is used for testing purposes, however, it can be used to synchronize oscillator 1 to external events, allowing the generation of highly complex waveforms under real-time software control.
/\/\ (Bit 4): When set to a one, the triangle waveform output of oscillator 1 is selected. The triangle waveform is low in harmonics and has a mellow, flute-like quality.
/// (Bit 5): When set to one, the sawtooth waveform output of oscillator 1 is selected. The sawtooth waveform is rich in even and odd harmonics and has a bright, brassy quality.
PULSE (Bit 6): When set to one, the pulse waveform output of oscillator 1 is selected. The harmonic content of this waveform can be adjusted by the pulse width registers, producing tone qualities ranging from a bright, hollow square wave to a reedy pulse. Sweeping the pulse width in real-time produces a dynamic "phasing" effect which adds a sense of motion to the sound. Rapidly jumping between different pulse widths can produce interesting harmonic sequences.
NOISE (bit 7): When set to one, the noise output waveform of oscillator 1 is selected. This output is a random signal which changes at the frequency of oscillator 1. The sound quality can be varied from a low rumbling to hissing white noise via the oscillator frequency registers. Noise is useful in creating explosions, gunshots, jet engines, wind, surf and other unpitched sounds, as well as snare drums and cymbals. Sweeping the oscillator frequency with noise selected produces a dramatic rushing effect. [The Noise output is not "true" random, as it is based on a 23 bit internal register].
NOTE: The oscillator output waveforms are NOT additive. If more than one output waveform is selected simultaneously, the result will be a logical ANDing of the waveforms. [Transcriber's note: This is most probably wrong. Some claim that it is the "min" function that is used, but my experience is that it is more complex than that].
Although this technique can be used to generate additional waveforms beyond the four listed above, it must be used with care. If any other waveform is selected while noise is on, the noise output can "lock up". If this occurs, the noise output will remain silent until reset by the TEST bit or by bringing RES (pin 5) low.
Bits 4-7 of this registers (ATK0-ATK3) select 1 of 16 ATTACK rates for the voice 1 envelope generator. The ATTACK rate determines how rapidly the output of voice 1 rises from zero to peak amplitude when the envelope generator is gated. The 16 ATTACK rates are listed in Table 2.
Bits 0-3 (DCY0-DCY3) select 1 of 16 DECAY rates for the envelope generator. The DECAY cycle follows the ATTACK cycle and the DECAY rate determines how rapidly the output falls from the peak amplitude to the selected SUSTAIN level. The 26 DECAY rates are listed in Table 2.
Bits 4-7 of this register (STN0-STN3) select 1 of 16 SUSTAIN levels for the envelope generator. The SUSTAIN cycle follows the DECAY cycle and the output of voice 1 will remain at the selected SUSTAIN amplitude as long as the gate bit remains set. The SUSTAIN levels range form zero to peak amplitude in 16 linear steps, with a SUSTAIN value of 0 selecting zero amplitude and a SUSTAIN value of 15 ($F) selecting the peak amplitude. A SUSTAIN value of 8 would cause voice 1 to SUSTAIN at an amplitude one-half the peak amplitude reached by the ATTACK cycle.
Bits 0-3 (RLS0-RLS3) select 1 of 16 RELEASE rates for the envelope generator. The RELEASE cycle follows the SUSTAIN cycle when the gate bit is reset to zero. At this time, the output of voice 1 will fall from the SUSTAIN amplitude to zero amplitude at the selected RELEASE rate. The 16 RELEASE rates are identical to the DECAY rates.
NOTE: The cycling of the envelope generator can be altered at any point via the gate bit. The envelope generator can be gated and released without restriction. For example, if the gate bit is reset before the envelope has finished the ATTACK cycle, the RELEASE cycles will immediately begin, starting from whatever amplitude had been reached. If the envelope is then gated again (before the RELEASE cycle has reached zero amplitude), another ATTACK cycle will begin, starting from whatever amplitude had been reached. This technique can be used to generate complex amplitude envelopes via real-time software control.
Table 2. Envelope Rates
VALUE ATTACK RATE DECAY/RELEASE RATE Time/Cycle Time/Cycle - ------------------------------------------ 0 2 ms 6 ms 1 8 ms 24 ms 2 16 ms 48 ms 3 24 ms 72 ms 4 38 ms 114 ms 5 56 ms 168 ms 6 68 ms 204 ms 7 80 ms 240 ms 8 100 ms 300 ms 9 240 ms 750 ms 10 500 ms 1.5 s 11 800 ms 2.4 s 12 1 s 3 s 13 3 s 9 s 14 5 s 15 s 15 8 s 24 s
Picture 3. 6581 Envelope
NOTE: Envelope rates are based on a 1.0 MHz ø2 clock. For other ø2 frequencies, multiply the given rate by 1 MHz/ø2. The rates refer to the amount of time per cycle. For example, given an ATTACK value of 2, the ATTACK cycle would take 16 ms to rise from zero to peak amplitude. The DECAY/RELEASE rates refer to the amount of time theses cycles would take to fall from peak amplitude to zero.
Registers $07-$0D control voice 2 and are functionally identical to registers $00-$06 with these exceptions:
Registers $0E-$14 control voice 3 and are functionally identical to registers $00-$06 with these exceptions:
Typical operation of a voice consists of selecting the desired parameters: frequency, effects (SYNC, RING MOD) and envelope rates, then gating the voice whenever the sound is desired. The sound can be sustained for any length of time and terminated by clearing the gate bit. Each voice can be used separately, with independent parameters and gating, or in unison to create a single, powerful voice. When used in unison, a slight detuning of each oscillator or tuning to musical intervals creates a rich, animated sound.
Together these registers form an 11-bit number (bits 3-7 of FC LO are not used) which linearly controls the cutoff (or center) frequency of the programmable filter. The approximate cutoff frequency ranges from 30 Hz to 12 KHz.
Bits 4-7 of this register (RES0-RES3) control the resonance of the filter. Resonance is a peaking effect which emphasizes frequency components at the cutoff frequency of the filter, causing a sharper sound. There are 16 resonance settings ranging linearly from no resonance (0) to maximum resonance (15 or $F).
Bits 0-3 determine which signals will be routed through the Filter:
FILT 1 (Bit 0): When set to a zero, Voice 1 appears directly at the audio output and the Filter has no effect on it. When set to a one, Voice 1 will be processed through the Filter and the harmonic content of Voice 1 will be altered according to the selected Filter parameters.
FILT 2 (Bit 1): Same as bit 0 for Voice 2.
FILT 3 (Bit 2): Same as bit 0 for Voice 3.
FILTEX (Bit 3): Same as bit 0 for External audio input (pin 26).
Bits 4-7 of this register select various filter mode and output options:
LP (Bit 4): When set to a one, the low-pass output of the filter is selected and sent to the audio output. For a given filter input signal, all frequency components below the filter cutoff frequency are passed unaltered, while all frequency components above the cutoff are attenuated at a rate of 12 dB/Octave. The low-pass mode produces full-bodied sounds.
BP (Bit 5): Same as bit 4 for the bandpass output. All frequency components above and below the cutoff are attenuated at a rate of 6 dB/Octave. The bandpass mode produces thin, open sounds.
HP (Bit 6): Same as bit 4 for the high-pass output. All frequency components above the Cutoff are passed unaltered, while all freqeuncy components below the cutoff are attenuated at a rate of 12 dB/Octave. The high-pass mode produces thin, buzzy sounds.
3 OFF (Bit 7): When set to a one, the output of voice 3 is disconnected from the direct audio path. Setting voice 3 to bypass the filter (FILT 3 = 0) and setting 3 OFF to a one prevents voice 3 from reaching the audio output. This allows voice 3 to be used for modulation purposes without any undesirable output.
NOTE: The filter output modes ARE additive and multiple filter modes may be selected simultaneously. For example, both LP and HP modes can be selected to produce a notch (or band reject) filter response. In order for the filter to have any audible effect, at least one filter output must be selected and at least one voice must be routed through the filter. The filter is, perhaps, the most important element in SID as it allows the generation of complex tone colors via subtractive synthesis (the filter is used to eliminate specific frequency componenets from a harmonically rich input signal). The best results are achieved by varying the cutoff frequency in real-time.
Bits 0-3 (VOL0-VOL3) select 1 of 16 overall volume levels for the final composite audio output. The output volume levels range from no output (0) to maximum volume (15 or $F) in 16 linear steps. This control can be used as a static volume control for balancing levels in multi-chip systems or for creating dynamic volume effects, such as tremolo. Some volume level other than zero must be selected in order for SID to produce any sound.
This register allows the microprocessor to read the position of the potentiometer tied to POTX (pin 24), with values ranging from 0 at minimum resistance, to 255 ($FF) at maximum resistance. See the Pin Description section for information on pot and capacitor values.[This register is supposed to be updated every 512 cycles].
Same as POTX for the pot tied to POTY (pin 23).
This register allows the microprocessor to read the upper 8 output bits of oscillator 3. The character of the numbers generated is directly related to the waveform selected. If the sawtooth waveform of oscillator 3 is selected, this register will present a series of numbers incrementing from 0 to 255 ($FF) at a rate detmined by the frequency of oscillator 3. If the triangle waveform is selected, the output will increment from 0 up to 255, then decrement down to 0. [Transcriber's note: This is 0,1,..,254,255,255,254,..1,0,0,1..]
If the pulse waveform is selected, the output will jump between 0 and 255. Selecting the noise waveform will produce a series of random numbers, therefore, this register can be used as a random number generator for games. There are numerous timing and sequencing applications for the OSC 3 register, however, the chief function is probably that of a modulation generator. The numbers generated by this register can be added, via software, to the oscillator or filter frequency registers or the pulse width registers in real-time. Many dynamic effects can be generated in this manner. Siren-like sounds can be created by adding the OSC 3 Sawtooth output to the frequency control of another oscillator. Synthesizer "Sample and Hold" effects can be created by adding the OSC 3 Sawtooth output to the Filter Frequency control registers. Vibrato can be produced by setting Oscillator 3 to a frequency around 7 Hz and adding the OSC 3 triangle output (with proper scaling) to the Frequency control of another oscillator. An unlimited range of effects are available by altering the frequency of oscillator 3 and scaling the OSC 3 output. Normally, when oscillator 3 is used for modulation, the audio output of voice 3 should be eliminated (3 Off = 1).
Same as OSC 3, but this register allows the microprocessor to read the output of the voice 3 envelope generator. This output can be added to the filter frequency to produce harmonic envelopes, WAH-WAH, and similar effects. "Phaser" sounds can be created by adding this output to the frequency control registers of an oscillator. The voice 3 envelope generators must be gated in order to produce any output from this register. The OSC 3 register, however, always reflects the changing output of the oscillator and is not affected in any way by the envelope generator.